Thyroid Associated Ophthalmopathy (TAO): A Review


Kadir SMU1 , Haider G2 , Khan F3


Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy is an orbital autoimmune disease, the exact nature of which is not yet clearly understood. The Clinical features shows a variety of spectrum from eyelid retraction to dysthyroid optic neuropathy. The management strategies of thyroid associated ophthalmopathy have changed time to time. The gold standard treatment modality of active thyroid associated ophthalmopathy is systemic glucocorticoids. Recent modality includes Monoclonal antibody against CD-20, IL-6 receptor, and Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor inhibitor. Surgeries include orbital decompression, extraocular muscle surgery, and lid surgery. Endoscopic decompression is the recent advancement.


  1. Assistant Professor

    Sheikh Fajilatunnesa Mujib Eye Hospital and Training Institute, Gopalgonj

  2. Professor

    Bangladesh Eye Hospital and Institute, Dhaka

  3. Associate Professor

    Z H Sikder Women's Medical College, Dhaka

Volume 4, Number 2, July 2022
Page: 37-42